On 26 June 2012 the Senate referred the following matter to the Senate Education, Employment and Workplace Relations Committees for inquiry and report”” The adequacy of the allowance payment system for jobseekers and others, the appropriateness of the allowance payment system as a support into work and the impact of the changing nature of the labour market. (a) the adequacy of the allowance payment system for jobseekers and others, with particular reference to the adequacy of the Newstart Allowance payment as an income support payment for jobseekers and the adequacy of all other allowance payments that support a range of recipients who study or provide care; (b) the appropriateness of the allowance payment system as a support into work, with particular reference to: (i) the effectiveness of the payment as an incentive into work, (ii) the effectiveness of the allowance payment system in facilitating transitions between working and other activities, such as studying, caring and retirement, or in the event of illness or disability, and in helping or hindering recipients to overcome barriers to employment, and (iii) the impact of the differences between pensions and allowances on the transition between working and other activities; and (c) the impact of the changing nature of the labour market, particularly the rise of insecure work and decline of unskilled jobs, on the: (i) nature and frequency of individual interaction with the allowance payment system, and (ii) over and underpayment of allowances to recipients. The Australia Institute has undertaken a good deal of research in this area. Some of the important papers are attached as appendices and summarised in this submission. Also included are some points made in our newsletters and other papers as well as some new material for the present submission.